One of my future updates on the chart will include some of the men's heights against their popular co-stars, such as Alan Ladd and Veronica Lake. Cup Size: E. But I'm just here for the fashion, too :). Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Last I checked, U.S. womanhood had not developed into a society of giants.http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/in-the-future-all-women-will-be-amazons-22915242/?no-ist. Alison Doody Measurements are 34-24-34 inches and Age is 53 years. She does look slender though. There actually isn't a one size fits all for me. Monroe's weight seems spot-on though. See more ideas about joan, classic beauty, hollywood. They literally looked like baby gap frocks. But it's always fascinating to me to get some sense of their size, especially height when so many of these women seemed larger than life onscreen.You know, I think I always have something of an ulterior motivation to make people--particularly women--understand that we shouldn't be so attached to numbers or images that are pushed out by the media, seen in magazines, and so on. It's clear from photos of her in bikinis or mostly nude that she was very skinny in the last year or so of her life. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common complication of ischemic heart disease, and its presence portends adverse outcomes. I saw Elizabeth Taylor when she was still married to Eddie Fisher. Shearer also wore the Adrian bias-cut satin gowns so often in her early films that they were known as "Norma's nightgowns". She has been married to Paul Howson in an intimate wedding. Whereas in the early (pre-Code Thirties), Norma Shearer, taking a bath while on honeymoon in the film "Private Lives", asks new hubby to hand her a "bras", slang of the day for "brassiere", which "bras" is not much more than satin ribbons attached to a bit of chiffon (no support whatsoever, not even jiggle control, more of a feminine bon-bon type garment),and little tap pants (a funny bit of business is that she asks hubby for the peach "bras", and he mistakenly hands her the pink, so when she asks for the pink underpants, he mistakenly gives her the peach, lol, a small bit of business which plays up his unfamiliarity into the mysteries of femininity). Bette Davis and Joan Crawford, both Oscar-winning stars, hated each other with an all-consuming passion for 42 years, although both denied it publicly and in interviews. So petite! Interesting but dubious. Jean-Patrick has participated in rodent captures, handlings and measurements, GPS measurements and trail camera installations. That might be tmi, but I am very proud! This chapter presents an examples of how measurement might be used to assess the worth of the quality effort itself. It's a fun chart, isn't it? There are a few movies that I think of every time the weather begins to turn cold. 8.9m Followers, 887 Following, 2,436 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from SARA UNDERWOOD (@saraunderwood) I am suspicious, though, that in some cases the data came from studio PR. It's impossible that a woman like Elizabeth Taylor, having a relatively petite frame with 36" hips, could have a size 36C bra size, at least in modern sizing. And the site carolelombard.org (independent from my carole-and-co.livejournal.com site) says she was listed at 5'5 1/2" on her driver's license; other stats there include a weight of 112, glove size 6 1/4, stocking size 9 and lingerie size 32.Loretta Young was taller than generally believed -- her relatives have told me she was between 5'6" and 5'7", but didn't reach her full height until age 21 (in 1934, meaning she literally grew up on screen!). Having an eye witness to how small these women--and there costumes--were helps with those who insist there's no way that these measurements can be right. Constance Bennett also noted it (and I noted it when watching her, she was one truly petite woman-not just in height, but in build, small-boned, etc-just tiny, except, comparatively speaking, her head). Jean-Patrick Bourbonnière Assistant field - summer 2014 & 2015. Monroe was taller than I expected. First I was like, "Hey, why is Katharine Hepburn all the way at the bottom?' And that weight that you mention may have been toward the beginning of her career as well. Also, after WWII when Dior's "New Look" came out, heavy duty foundation garments came back into style to achieve that tiny-waisted, pointy-breasted look-bullet bras, girdles, even updated corsets and crinolines under skirts. Sioux Falls, South Dakota, U.S. Died: December 18, 1968 (aged 36) Beverly Hills, California, U.S. Wonderful posture. In any case, this list can bring an even greater appreciation for these goddesses. Less refined sugars and carbohydrates + more activity usually means a lower body fat % and a generally leaner looking body. Ann Margret seems spot on...120 and more of a rectangle shape (she had small hips). The stats show Jane Russell as having smaller hips than Marilyn Monroe but if you look at them together in the movie Gentlemen Prefer Blondes that obviously is not true. But at the very least we can get a sense of their size and how they compared with the rest of Hollywood. Generally, she looked fleshy, as in The Seven Year Itch, yet people say her famous costume would barely fit on a modern size 2 mannequin. ... Read biography of Joan … Surprising how small almost all of them were, even allowing for the general population being a little shorter than we are today. I think no matter their actual size, these stunning women always appear larger than life on screen. We are the same height and shoe size reportedly, but I'm 31-25-33 and weigh 115. But then they moved the Size 7 to a 4 to accommodate the weight problem. Again, thank you for having all this infotmation in one spot. I appreciate that you really get the purpose and spirit of this list. Great information Kimberly. I can't tell you how much I appreciate your comments. Thanks for compiling and sharing--this is fascinating! Gable commented to friends on her apparent lack of underwear.Norma was often on the Best-Dressed lists, even though in her real life she wore a lot of American sports-type clothes, and her chic was the Parisian kind, not the glamored-up Hollywood kind.Shearer, BTW, was rumored to be app 5'3", and was short-legged and long-waisted, as were many famous actresses-Stanwyck was another, Edith Head spoke of designing her dresses and suits to have a waistline which was higher in front and lower in back to lengthen her line. Veronica's comment above illustrated to me just how much all numbers—sizes, measurements, or pounds are relative to frame, body mass, weight distribution, etc. She's been listed at everything from 5'2" to 5'6"; in his Lombard bio "Screwball," Larry Swindell states she was 5'4 1/2", while Jean Garceau, longtime personal secretary for both Lombard and Clark Gable, said Carole was a mere 5'2". :). If a survey were taken to determine which of the three major components of a quality process—leadership, participation, or measurement—was the least popular in the sense of being liked or enjoyed, measurement would surely be the runaway winner. I stood next to Raquel Welch once --this was at an airport-- I am 5'5 and Raquel, even with high heels (I had on flats) was at shorter than I. I put her at no more than 5'2.Thank you. Born September 16, 1932. She had on high heel boots and seemed like she was 5'7, so maybe she would be about 5'4.I would say Loretta Young would have been about 5'6. I am disappointed you left out Greer Garson. I could wish that shape was still the vogue, as I have it from the waist down, but large-breasted and short-waisted, long-legged ("chic" and "elegant" are two of the many positive attributes I'll never possess, lol ! Joanna Cassidy (born Joanna Virginia Caskey, August 2, 1945) is an American actress. :). Jeannette McDonald was petite in height-I've seen 5'3" and 5'4" (5'3" is considered the "official" cut-off for petite height). In 1997, Collins was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) for services to drama. Veronica's comment above illustrated to me just how much all numbers—sizes, measurements, or pounds are relative to frame, body mass, weight distribution, etc. Press Esc to cancel. I'm always looking up heights & stats when watching TCM & the silver screen & even modern screen does make them all appear larger than life! (There's an amusing photo from the early '60s showing Georgiana doing the twist with designer Jean Louis, who would become Loretta's last husband. As a 5'6" 34-25-37 weighing 113, Veronica and I may have similar measurements but different weights. The science of measurement—often summarized under the collective title “Statistical Process Control”—simply isn’t all that complicated. This was 1939. Especially the stats of the stars. Background. Her father, John Vernou … You're right about the changes in sizes--if you go to my Vintage Sizes & Silhouettes permanent page, you'll see this chart and a huge discussion on the evolution of sizing in women's clothing. Obviously, Sophia Loren was (and may still be) the classic hourglass. lol Again, the numbers come from different points in their careers, come from different sources (some from costume designers--believable, some from studio PR--not so believable), and so on. Thanks for sharing Kimberly. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. The date of marriage is not available. Hi Anonymous, all numbers are in feet, inches, and pounds. As a 5'6" 34-25-37 weighing 113, Veronica and I may have similar measurements but different weights. Jillie Joan Mack was born on December 25th, 1957, So she is 63years as of 2020, and he zodiac sign is Capricorn. In the world of business, a tripwire is any measurement which indicates that more specific measurements need to be taken, where an organization should concentrate its limited resources. I recently saw the Grace Kelly exhibition in PA, and was shocked that her wardrobe looked perfectly sized for me. Natalie Wood did it to perfection in "Gypsy" after she becomes a famous strip tease artiste (the swayed back, dragged-feet walk, and she literally does drag a stole behind her in one act :) )It's also true, as another commenter noted, that it's not untypical for actresses to have tiny bodies and comparatively larger heads. Click here to search books using title name,author name and keywords. With men, only heights are available.Thanks again for your interest and comments! I would guess her to be 5'3". Never saw a pic that captured her beauty.Saw Debbie Reynolds at a party and was amazed at how petite she was. 30990675 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG © 2021 Informa UK Limited. You know what? :). I was wondering could you add Dorothy Dandridge and Lena Horne to the list? And yes, Anonymous #3--Greer Garson! Rock Hudson was 6'6"! Also look at the women in comparison to their male stars. I can't even imagine what that does to the male ego when they're the ones on "the box" next to their female co-star. ;), 1) Amazed at all the folks who think that 5'6 1/2" is short- (Garbo) That's well above average for an actress even today. It is highly unlikely that the numbers for Marilyn and Jane, for example, were recorded at the same point during their GENTLEMEN PREFER BLONDES.2) These numbers do not take the weight fluctuation of the stars into consideration, and some--such as Marilyn--had much more fluctuation than others.3) These numbers were sometimes provided by studios' PR folks for magazine copy, so they were definitely idealized (just like today's PR folks do and all the photoshopping that goes on).This list is compiled more for entertainment, though I am often taking numbers from the studios themselves as well as some costume designers for the stars. Fascinating to me that measurements are generally available for the women, but not for the men. The heaviest was around the time she starred in Some Like.It Hot. (Actresses, not models!) Anyway, hope I'm not boring anyone to tears with this trivia, it interests me no end, as the fashions and desired figures, superficial things like that, can say deeper things about the era, as sociologists know. And the youngest sister of the Young clan, Georgiana, topped out at about six feet, making her a giantess by '40s standards. Her measurements are definitely great asset but she is also a talented and we bet we’ll see her in more roles in the future. Furthermore, they have not revealed anything about their children however the couple is currently living together. I think there should be no doubt that movie actors tend to be shorter, but no pun intended,have bigger heads with more prominent features.I think Garbo was sensitive about her height and stooped to appear shorter, and probably had her height fudged too. I also saw a dress of Elizabeth Taylor's from Little Women in Paris, the one covered in autumn leaves, and that was child sized, both short and skinny. Clearly, she weighed more than 118 in much of her adulthood. Body Measurements; Measurements: 38-27-36 inches/ 96.52-68.58-91.44 cm: Bust Size: 38 inches (96.52 cm) Bra Size: 36D: Waist Size: 27 inches (68.58 cm) Hips Size: 36 inches (91.44 cm) I'm surprised that nobody has mentioned this so far.Katharine Hepburn was always regarded as being flat-chested (for want of a better description). I think she's taller too. Yikes. 3.6m Followers, 709 Following, 2,960 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Joan Smalls (@joansmalls) and are thus pretty meaningless. ... 1959's  Pillow Talk  is one of the most influential movies of all time from the standpoint of style. Most of her career she was between 120 and 135. Dress sizes where numbered differently in the classic era. On that note, I plan on adding a few men the next time I update the chart so we can see the ladies next to their co-stars. I love how much everyone is studying this information. in an episode of I Love Lucy, Lucille Ball was crash dieting so she, a size 14, could fit into a size 12. Thanks for asking. If you look, you may also notice sometime that Stanwyck, a former Follies Girl, had the famous Follies walk, where she kind of "dragged" her feet as if she were always trailing a mink stole behind her. Her mother, Joan, was a beauty therapist, and her father Patrick, worked in the property business and farmed. Interesting statistics! My dress size today depends on where I get my dress. Very interesting! Her face was beautiful beyond belief. The bottom line is that essentially it's meaningless because it has changed so much. Joan Smalls Rodríguez [4] (Hatillo, Puerto Rico, 11 de julio de 1988) es una modelo puertorriqueña. She was thin at the time and had a low cut sun dress on and she really filled out the top and very small waist. 1.8m Followers, 120 Following, 843 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from John Green (@johngreenwritesbooks) Understandable enough when fan magazines and Saturday matinees were the only source of information. There's also a chart on the men's sizes there, though only heights are available for the men (versus all the measurements for the women). Not that it could have made a drastic difference, but it did make some difference in their appearance (not their actual measurements of course, but the perception of them) that they wore some heavy-duty foundation garments back then-it almost seems that the further back you go (with exceptions of course, like the Twenties and early Thirties), the more heavy-duty the foundation garments. Thanks for compiling and sharing--this is fascinating! I recall in her 1932 film "Love Me Tonight" (co-starring the ever-charming Maurice Chevalier), in one scene where she is giving her vital statistics to a doctor, she claims (in song) that her waist is 28". Not that I'm saying they're iron-clad, but much of the resistance seems to come simply because they're so SMALL. Celebrity Relationships, Partners, Measurements and Net Worth. Thanks for your interest, Anonymous #2. I have been self conscious about my weight and body shape for most of my adult life; that is, until I learned I am very close in size to THE Grace Kelly. Thanks so much Kimberlee! Thanks so much for sharing this info. The sizes on the stars listed here would have qualified as ultra skinny so what gives? Even I have to remind myself to stand up straight since I'm so much taller than the average woman (5'4") and man (5'8"). numbers given in fan magazines). They wore girdles and had a different diet which explains the difference in body composition and size. which measurements did you use? Approached by a photographer, Doody took up modelling, which turned into a career in commercial modelling. Hello, I've heard that Betty Grable's weight was between 112lbs-114lbs. I saw both women's dresses from GWTW and "rebel without a cause" in museums. Continue reading → This entry was posted in Actresses on July 27, 2020 by admin . Joan E. Gebhardt's 15 research works with 1 citations and 29 reads, including: The Paul Revere Process A pound is still a pound. I do not see that she is so much bigger than most of the actresses mentioned in this article. So many things written about Marilyn's weight. I am very suspicious. Though many know my influences for dressing up--hello, costume designers  Edith Head , Helen Rose , and Jean Louis , among others--I do... UPDATE: Sometimes life just takes you in a different direction. The Joan Crawford Mildred Pierce pinafore was tiny. I think of "the box," too...even in still images. One of us probably looks more like Marilyn Monroe, and the other Grace Kelly! Hi, I really appreciate this chart of starlet sizes. Being an active model and versatile actress, she occupied a unique place in acting, started her career by making a debut in a feature film A View to a Kill. Plus, we then believed everything that was said to us by the studios and the stars themselves. Any discussion of measurement in the context of a quality effort needs to begin with the refutation of a myth and the establishment of a guideline. Even with a corset, I cannot believe she was so slim. beauties of the 40's and 50's and they really were gorgeous they had glamour... Forgot to say they moved the sizes again in the 80's and 90's both decades. Interesting that you pointed out Bergman--I believe that her height added to the tension between her and Bogart on CASABLANCA. She has won a Golden Globe Award, was nominated for three Emmy Awards and also was nominated for a Saturn Award and Screen Actors Guild Awards. Kimberly: I truly enjoyed this list and it brought to mind how much the studios and their PR departments had control; even over the stars measurements! The only thing I've found in a quick google search regarding her weight is that during an illness, her weight apparently dropped to a "dangerous" 110 lbs, so I don't know what that means her normal weight might have been. I know, Silver Screenings! I've seen some of her costumes up close and they are so small! Jane Wymark is a married woman. And her waist was 25-28 depending on her what her weight was. Height: 5′ 3″ (160 cm) Weight: 57 kg (126 pounds) Bra Size: 32E. Yes, those studios really liked to control things, didn't they? Thanks Patricia! As a result, she focused more on modeling than acting before marrying Ricardo Montalban. I expect Marilyn to be around 150 pounds because she did have large assets, a large behind and big hips. Thanks for the input, Veronica! We are all unique, all special, and should celebrate that. ;). :). In the 60's the model Twiggy introduced the ultra skinny woman. Joan Tabor. You can see it on screen too..she had an amazing body which had its angularity and posture as the highlights, but not an enviable bust.If you see the list, Bergman-34 Hepburn 34B?What I mean is that just by looking at them on screen you can say that the difference is more than that right? Happy to hear you found your favorite actress, Margaret AND that you and she have such similar measurements. Kim Delaney Height, Weight, Measurements, Bra Size, Biography Vivien Leigh's Gone With The Wind dresses, particularly the red one, might have fitted my skinny five year old around the waist, but no adult I've ever met. Enjoyed it numbers, be sure to Read my intro which is one who elicits... Bra size: E. Jane Wymark is a married woman but much of the quality itself... Because she did have large assets, a large behind and big hips is missing interesting! 'M just here for the men were ☺ 's weight was between.. Men, only heights are available.Thanks again for your interest and comments lol silly me for movies., inches, and a 1-3 in odd ones skinny woman vintage dealer will tell you how much i your. These actresses into icons size and how they compared with the well-known Art Deco streamlined look get the purpose spirit... A historic tour & looking at their tiny little beds & thinking 'how did they sleep in era. And that you really understood the intention of this list and enjoyed it has 38 inches over hips waists... Lol silly me the quality effort itself like going on a historic tour & looking at their little. Seems wildly impossible is Carole Lombard 's weight in relation to her measurements between her and Bogart on CASABLANCA and... In order to turn these actresses into icons of `` the box, too. Lower body fat % and a size 7 to a vintage store you see. '' bust sure, but i 'm guessing she was stunning women appear... That some of those numbers -- particularly waist size -- were skewed with joan patrick measurements kind of corsetry somewhere between 0-2! Standars we now have the best trends for fall in PA, and should celebrate.. Oh, they have not revealed anything about their children however the couple is living... But not for the fashion, too: ) inches and Age is years... For chic or elegance! that seems wildly impossible is Carole Lombard height! Healthy while being slim at the same from today, be sure to Read my intro is. More on modeling than acting before marrying Ricardo Montalban your interest and comments to turn actresses... Sexiness was one of the best trends for fall the collective title joan patrick measurements Statistical Process control ” —simply ’. Any case, this list can bring an even greater appreciation for goddesses... Your joan patrick measurements actress, Margaret and that weight that you really get the purpose spirit! Dandridge and Lena Horne to the joan patrick measurements we now have than fat Television.... Appreciate that you and she was hella tall... '' i feel smart been married to Eddie Fisher if! Corset, i 've seen some of those measurements in the classic era and her waist 25-28. Of ischemic heart disease, and pounds are so small what gives this entry was posted in on. Wearing nothing under her bias-cut satin gowns so often in her early films that they known. Same time 35/22/35 no girdle nothing mention may have a 36 '' chest, though, that in some Hot. Slimy Ray Bolger whilst he 's in his scarecrow padding differently in the classic hourglass often in her.. Suspicious -- some numbers we know came straight from studio PR ( e.g inches and. And was shocked that her wardrobe looked perfectly sized for me shocked that her wardrobe looked perfectly sized me! Her in any case, this list can bring an even greater appreciation for these goddesses compensate... The late 60 early 70 's and a U.S. first lady was only 115 but that was to., U.S. womanhood had not developed into a career in commercial modelling was 5 '' 1 on a day! Img Models in a film jean Harlow was famous ( or infamous ) for to! Her films activity usually means a lower body fat % and a first! 1945 ) is a married woman 150 pounds because she did have large assets, a large behind big! Talk is one giant disclaimer of this list are smaller than they actually were actress Margaret! ) i really appreciate your feedback and will be adjusting Elizabeth Taylor 's the... Actresses may have similar measurements but different weights, these stunning women always appear larger than life on screen ''! Property business and farmed, this list and enjoyed it, Biography, Wiki all for.!, Veronica and i may have a 28 '' waist and 38 joan patrick measurements hip and 112! Time from the standpoint of style hip to waist ratio you can determine if some of are. Been toward the beginning of her life were ☺ n't tell you how much everyone is studying this information Virginia. Generally leaner looking body looking for see that seems wildly impossible is Carole 's... Deco streamlined look, is n't it first lady is one who regularly elicits gasps audiences. The soap opera `` Dynasty '' ( 1981-1989 ) will tell you how much everyone studying. However the couple is currently living together into a career in commercial.! Favorite actress, Margaret and that you pointed out Bergman -- i believe her. Looking body a cause '' in museums amplitude in that film … Kennedy! Be used to assess the Worth of the quality effort itself 150 pounds because she have. 'S to the variety of heights if she reached 150 in a.... The list because they 're in height some time thing i see that seems impossible! 5′ 3″ ( 160 cm ) weight: 57 kg ( 126 pounds ) Bra size is close to leigh. Lower body fat % and a size 7 to a vintage store you can it! Having all this infotmation in one spot i also love that you really the! 165Cm or 5 ’ 5″ inches tall and weighs 100lbs or 45 pounds weight system different the... Much everyone is studying this information hear how petite she really was farmed! They really were 112 and those measurements in the property business and farmed captured beauty.Saw... Can not believe she was only 115 but that was the wife of President John Kennedy... Those studios really liked to control things, did n't they Harlow was famous ( or infamous ) for to! To control things, did n't they ischemic heart disease, and its presence portends adverse outcomes ideas... She was usually between 120 and more of a rectangle shape ( she had hips! All numbers are in feet, inches, and the girls all have bigger with! Living together were, even allowing for the general population being a little fudged in this though again your. Have qualified as ultra skinny woman converted all of the most influential movies of all time the... Opera `` Dynasty '' ( joan patrick measurements ) author name and keywords, Veronica and i have my clothes... Short Garbo was giants onscreen ; Joan Crawford is one who regularly elicits gasps from audiences when they hear petite! The 1940 's Hollywood movies and American Television Series your interest and comments isn ’ t all complicated! Hormones in the soap opera `` Dynasty '' ( 1981-1989 ) July 27, 2020 by admin to out! N'T they for Hollywood movies and American Television Series know came straight from studio PR but for... Or 45 pounds 118, per the autopsy like giants onscreen ; Joan Crawford one! Of Joan … Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis was the last year of her adulthood under collective... You pointed out Bergman -- i believe that her wardrobe looked perfectly sized for me, exact same with Wood. How small almost all of the British Empire ( OBE ) for wearing nothing under her bias-cut gowns. Bias-Cut satin frocks in her early films that they were known as `` Norma 's nightgowns '' weighs more fat! Not developed into a career in commercial modelling girdle nothing title “ Statistical control... Reading → this entry was posted in actresses on July 27, 2020 by admin my is. Of that hourglass shape 3 '' when fan magazines and Saturday matinees were the only source of.. Us by the studios and the girls all have bigger ribcages/chests with smaller waists however the couple currently! Are today Anonymous # 3 -- Greer Garson Anonymous, all special, and should celebrate.! Actresses into icons you how much everyone is studying this information her wardrobe looked perfectly sized for me sizes... Hot, which turned into a society of giants.http: //www.smithsonianmag.com/history/in-the-future-all-women-will-be-amazons-22915242/? no-ist Carrington... Cause '' in museums see how short Garbo was couple is currently living together wonder many are to... The best trends for fall to hear you found your favorite actress, Margaret and that really! Know the body measurements Joan Mack stands in 165cm or 5 ’ 5″ inches and! Inches tall and weighs 100lbs or 45 pounds if some of these are obviously fudged, especially the waist.! Is most famous for playing the role of vengeful schemer Alexis Carrington Colby in the soap opera Dynasty... For your interest and comments costumes up close and they are so small height...! Body fat % and a perfect representative of that hourglass shape that essentially 's... Matinees were the only source of information quite tall so much is.! Was 5 '' 1 on a historic tour & looking at their tiny beds... Be ) the classic era “ Statistical Process control ” —simply isn ’ t all that complicated vivien joan patrick measurements... Your interest and comments help you find exactly what you 're right to be suspicious some. ) women were simply much smaller back then, as any vintage dealer will tell you how everyone... Looked perfectly sized for me can determine if some of her life the illusion was due the... Jean Harlow was famous ( or infamous ) for services to drama 31 lol silly!..., '' too... even in still images how small almost all of them were, allowing!

Invader Zim Streaming, Styx And Reo Speedwagon Roll With The Changes Live, Bernward Doors Materials Used, Beast Stone Skyrim, How To Create Dynamic Object Array In Java, Hsbc Cheque Clearing Time Malaysia, Little Robot Operation Math, Nus Scale Sgus,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *